REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
The Republic of Kazakhstan is a state in the center of Eurasia, most of which belongs to Asia and a smaller part to Europe. The capital of Kazakhstan is Nur-Sultan.
Kazakh culture is a reflection of the history of the nomadic people. For millennia, nomadic tribes had been walking the Kazakh steppe, forming their unique world view, creating distinctive customs and traditions, and cooperating with neighboring peoples and cultures. In the 19th and 20th centuries many Kazakhs began to change their nomadic lifestyle to a sedentary one, and new cultural aspects of the Kazakh people were developed. Today, the culture of Kazakhstan is a vast array of different kinds of art, traditions and everyday life, imbued with the spirit of the nomadic past.
The national Kazakh dwelling, the yurt, is a domestic reflection of the nomadic way of life of the nation.
Yurt is a convenient and practical house that can be easily assembled and transported during nomadic passages from pasture to pasture. The Kazakh yurt consists of three wooden elements: lattices «kerege», which make up the walls; jerseys «yuk» which form the dome; and circular rim «shanyrak», which serves as the top of the yurt, ceiling window and opening for the escape of smoke.
The nomadic way of life, which had become the basis of Kazakh culture, had also influenced the handicrafts of the people. By traveling from place to place, people created everything they needed for a long journey. Therefore, among the handicrafts of Kazakhstan, the species that helped to survive on the road and to create comfort - to process wood, to create equipment for riding horses and felt for upholstery of yurt. In the harsh climate of the steppe, the Kazakhs also developed crafts in making warm coats and hats of leather, fur and wool of animals. Keeping in the saddle was an integral part of nomadic life.
The traditional men’s costume consists of a «chapan» and a headdress, which can be «a tube» or a fur cap. The women’s costume consists of dresses and wedding headgear «saukele», which after the birth of the child comes «kimeeshek» - a white shawl tied on the head in a special way.
The musical culture of Kazakhstan for most of the history was based on folklore and did not have a notation, so it was transmitted from teacher to pupil. In the 15th-18th centuries, the formation of the Kazakh musical genre «kyu» took place. The musician played «dombra» and sang stories from epics and fairy tales. Kazakh culture of poetry spans thousands of years - various legends and legends have been recounted for centuries. The most famous epics were «Korkyt-ata» and «Ogubeme».
Among the world heritage sites of UNESCO are the historical monuments of Kazakhstan: the Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, the Petroglyph of the archaeological landscape of Tamgala, Sariyark.
The most prominent figures in the culture and history of Kazakhstan are: Hulikhanov Shokan, Altynsarin Ibirai, Dulatov Mirjakip, Aimauyutov Jusupbek, Asfendiyarov Sanjar.